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Color consists of hue, value and intensity.
Hue: Hue is the actual color (red, yellow, blue...).
Value: Value is the lightness or darkness of a color. Adding white creates a tint of a color and adding black creates a shade of a color.
Intensity: Intensity is the purity or saturation of a color (the blueness of the blue).
Colors are often arranged in a circle known as the color wheel (see resources below) with the three primaries (red, yellow, blue) forming a triangle. Primary colors are mixed to create other hues but cannot be obtained by mixing other colors. Equal parts of primary colors result in secondary colors. A primary with an adjacent secondary makes a tertiary color (red-orange...primary name listed first). The colors opposite each other on the wheel are called complementary. Complementary colors dull each other when mixed, but heighten each other when placed side-by-side. Analogous colors are beside each other on the wheel.
Color is often considered to be the most emotional element of art.
See Visual Literacy for more about hue and saturation.
See ArtLex and Chalkboard for more about color.