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fundamentals of art/design
As you procede with the following, be aware that rules are made to be broken (sometimes). Some of the most creative works break the rules. But the difference between a genius and a fool is that the genius knows the rules and knows when they can be successfully broken.
Traditionally, there are seven elements of art:
In addition, there are six principles of design:
consistency with variety
There are other considerations when developing computer graphics:
Note that graphic arts, and especially computer graphics, frequently incorporate particular elements (such as text) which are not common in traditional works of art. These elements should be adapted to the need of the project. Text, for example, should reflect the character of the project's intended purpose.
See Visual Literacy for a comparison of line as used by artists and technical illustrators.
For more information check
Eyes on Art
For samples of logos, check:
Barry's Clip Art (four pages in all)
Barry's Clip Art (baseball)
See what one professional designer (LOGOcat) has to say about logos.