Late/Northern Renaissance

Difference in Italian and Northern Renaissance:

Religion

Reformation:

causes:

three effects -

theological - free will, human nature

intellectual - elaborated ideas of Christian humanist scholars

social - German people resented Catholic taxation

indulgence

Protestant

Luther - grace

Calvin - predestination

Protestant work ethic

Erasmus

Anglican church - Henry VIII

Elizabeth I - tolerance

Counter-Reformation / Council of Trent

Philosophy

Montaigne - Essays introspective look at friendship, death, nature

Thomas More - Utopia

Visual Arts

Jan van Eyck / Arnolfini wedding

Grunewald

Durer

Pieter Bruegel

Palladio

Titian

Mannerism

Parmigianino

Theater

Globe theater/English plays

Shakespeare

Italy - intellectualized, beautiful settings

Camerata

commedia dell’arte

Music

madrigal - secular song in four (later 5 or 6) parts with voices doubled by instruments

Pelestrina - sacred compositions based on traditional plainchant - dir. of Sistine Choir

Venice

Giovanni Gabrieli - St. Mark’s - 2 choirs in stereo musical duels; parts united at the end with cadences